Gearboxes and geared motors are essential components of virtually any mechanical machines. There is a tremendous versatility thanks to a large number of varieties, designs and sizes. Widely used in machinery of various industries and the national economy: metallurgy and coal mining machinery, lifting and harvesting machines, power-engineering, oil and gas industry, agriculture and processing machinery, building industry and others.
The gearbox is a mechanism gear unit, serving to reduce the speed (angular velocity) and hence increase the torque of the driven shaft relative to the shaft of the master. It consists of a gear or worm gears enclosed in a separate closed molded or welded housing and working in an oil bath.
Reducers conventionally divided on various grounds. According to the type of transmission gears can be toothed with simple gears (spur, bevel, worm). In turn, each of the gear teeth may be different location and profile. Thus, cylindrical transmission can be performed with straight, oblique and herringbone teeth; Bevel - with straight, oblique and circular teeth, those and others - with involute profile and gearing of Novikova. The worm gearboxes are manufactured with cylindrical worm and globoid. Gear planetary gearboxes and wave are among the multi-threaded and multi-pair transmission. Their main advantage over simple - great gear ratios by one stage, as well as the torque per unit weight and compact design. Combined gears - gears, combining different transmission: conical-cylindrical, rack-and-worm, planetary-wave, etc.
Depending on the number of units engaged in pairs (the number of stages), general purpose gearboxes are one-, two- and three-way. According to the location in space of the shaft axes distinguish reducers with parallel and co-axial, and intersect the axes intersecting the input and output shafts. In this case various options may be output shafts protruding ends relative to the gearbox housing.
Gearmotor is a separate independent unit, which is a motor and reducer connected into a single monoblock. It is more compact than the actuator on the basis of the gear, it is much easier installation, moreover, the base frame is reduced consumption of materials, and for the execution mechanism with shell (flanged) does not require any special frame structures.
The most widely used in the industry are cylindrical and planetary gearboxes made by coaxial scheme of mutual arrangement of the electric motor and the output shaft. And worm geared motors with motor positioned at 90° to the output shaft.
Geared motors are widely used in almost all areas of the industry (lifting equipment, construction equipment, etc.), and a huge variety of sizes and design solutions allows companies to supply gearmotors different purposes, sizes and capacities.
Gearboxes and geared motors are classified into the following main features:
- on the transmission type - gear, worm, gear-worm;
- according to the number of steps - one, two and three-stage;
- type gears - cylindrical, tapered, conical, cylindrical, etc.;
- the relative position of the shaft in the space - horizontal, vertical.
Performance is determined by the gear transmission ratio, the shape of the shaft ends and the assembly plan.